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For now, Kim and Xi appear to be taking things slow.

The two leaders are “probably both anticipating a time when they can engage in a more substantial discussion” on the matter, said Anthony Rinna, an analyst at research group SinoNK. “The two sides will likely want to wait and see how things progress in the coming year, and beyond, in terms not only of security but also other regional economic developments.”

If denuclearization moves forward, Chamorro expects “more cooperation on infrastructure from China into North Korea.”

“China does want North Korea to take lessons from China’s history and follow the Chinese model of economic reform — so if Kim starts to take that path, perhaps we’ll see China increase the economic rewards for North Korea over time,” Obo added.

South Korea, who is a BRI member, could have a major role to play in North Korea potentially joining the landmark trade initiative. Seoul’s “New Northern Policy” envisions cooperation between the two Koreas as well as China, Russia and Eurasian states.

“If South Korea manages to develop stronger economic links with North Korea, then North Korea’s participation in the BRI will likely depend in part on how much the South Korean government wants to connect the New Northern Policy with the BRI,” said Rinna.

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Italy’s finance minister plays down the idea of a parallel currency

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Giovanni Tria Italian Minister of Economy and Finance attends during Festival dell’ Economia in Trento on May 30, 2019.

NurPhoto | NurPhoto | Getty Images

Italy’s finance chief does not see ongoing talks over a parallel currency materializing.

Market players have been wary of parliamentary discussions in Rome regarding an alternative for government debt repayments. Lawmakers are considering a proposal that would see the Italian Treasury issue securities — so-called mini-BOTs (short-term treasury bills) — that could be used by recipients to pay taxes or to buy goods or services from state-owned companies.

However, Giovanni Tria, the country’s finance minister, said Tuesday at a conference in London that he does not think mini-BOTs will be introduced. “We do not need this kind of instrument,” Tria said, according to Reuters. He also added that the introduction of a parallel currency is not on the agenda.

Tria, a technocrat without political affiliation, sounded more moderate than some of his government colleagues.

“We don’t want to create problems in Europe. We have to reinforce the trust in investors in Italy’s finance situations,” the finance minister told the audience.

Supporters of the idea, including one of Italy’s ruling parties, Lega, believe the short-term securities would help the government reduce its outstanding bills. On the other hand, critics argue that it would lead to higher public debt in a country that already has the second-largest debt pile in the euro zone.

The mini-BOTs discussion has also resurfaced fears about Italy’s commitment to the single currency. Prior to the general election in 2018, both coalition parties — the leftist Five Star Movement and the right-wing Lega, spread doubts about the country’s membership of the euro zone.

Since then, both parties have toned down their euroskepticism but one of the main economic minds from Lega, Claudio Borghi, is still openly hostile to the idea of the common currency.

“There are a number of economists, including influential ones close to the Italian government, who believe the euro is a key reason for Italian underperformance, and the leaders of the coalition have never fully put this idea to bed,” Erik Nielsen, group chief economist at UniCredit, said in a note last week.

Both the European Central Bank (ECB) and the International Monetary Fund have sounded skeptical about the mini-BOTs discussion. Christine Lagarde, the International Monetary Fund’s managing director, told CNBC last Thursday: “On this strange financial instrument that has been developed in Italy, we think that there are many better ways to deal with the payment of arrears. It does not require the creation of such instruments. Italian bonds could absolutely do the job … why bother?”

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Egytian billionaire Nassef Sawiris isn’t worried about trade war

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Billionaire business tycoon Nassef Sawiris heads a company that serves, among others, agricultural clients all over the world. But despite the U.S.-China trade war and all the uncertainty it’s wreaked on his customers, the OCI N.V CEO says he’s not deterred from investing.

“Trade is not helpful, but at the same time it’s manageable. I think people worry too much about the trade wars, I think the world can live with some trade friction, it’s not the end of the world,” Sawiris, who is ranked by Forbes as the world’s fourth-richest African, told CNBC’s Hadley Gamble in Abu Dhabi.

The Egyptian CEO’s company, OCI, produces and exports natural gas-based fertilizers and industrial chemicals to customers across agriculture and industry sectors.

“It creates some uncertainty for our customers, our farmers in North America had a tough time deciding what to plant, corn or soybeans — it had a lot to do with weather but more so with whether they can sell soybeans to China or they will be handicapped by some tariffs,” Sawiris described, referencing the mounting tit-for-tat tariff battle being waged between the world’s two largest economies.

“That created some added complexity in the minds of our customers and our farmers in the U.S.”

Early last month, President Donald Trump unexpectedly accused China of reneging on a deal and announced that tariffs on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods would increase to 25% from 10% on May 10. Beijing retaliated, raising levies on $60 billion worth of U.S. products. Trump has now said he’s ready to hit the remaining $300 billion of Chinese imports with tariffs if a trade deal isn’t reached.

OCI N.V Chief Executive Officer Nassef Sawiris at a plenary session of the 9th VTB Capital Russia Calling! annual investment forum.

Mikhail Metzel | TASS via Getty Images

The developments have hit the American agriculture sector particularly hard, and the Trump administration had to introduce a $16 billion aid package for farmers hurt by reduced sales to China.

“Trade creates challenges and opportunities. Vietnam for example is benefiting from the trade war with China, the uncertainty is not welcome by the customers or the investment decision makers,” Sawiris said. “At the same time, I think it’s manageable.”

Asked if the uncertainty — from either the trade war or regional tensions in the Middle East — would ever stop him from investing in a given region, he replied with a laugh, “Uncertainty is our middle name, so we’ve gotten used to that.”

On Monday, the company announced a joint venture with the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, ADNOC, to create the world’s largest exporter of nitrogen-based fertilizer and expand market access.

Sawiris’ net worth is estimated at more than $7.5 billion. He also serves as executive chairman of British football club Aston Villa FC.

A U.S. recession on the horizon?

Looking at markets, the CEO sees Europe as potentially undervalued, but is not holding out hope for a major uptick in growth from developed markets anytime soon.

“From a valuation perspective, you could argue that Europe continues to be discounted vis-a-vis North America,” he said. “But the whole market looks to be running out of steam, not just in terms of trade issues, but the growth in the U.S. has been going on for 11 years and all good things have to come to some slowdown at one point.”

Asked if he predicted a U.S. recession, he replied, “Not necessarily, but a slowdown I think is more realistic to be expected than continuous growth for another ten years.”

Sawiris was one of the biggest shareholders of LafargeHolcim, the world’s largest cement maker, before selling most of his shares — worth $67.5 million — at the start of this year. He announced he would not run for re-election to the company’s board in May.

OCI N.V.’s predecessor Orascom Construction Industries was the parent company of Orascom Cement, previously the Middle East’s largest cement maker, and was bought by Lafarge for $10 billion in 2007.

Nassef Sawiris is the youngest of the three Sawiris brothers, all billionaire business heavyweights who as a family own the Orascom conglomerate, which spans construction, telecommunications, tourism, industry and technology. Forbes in 2008 estimated the family’s collective wealth at $42 billion.

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Facebook announces Libra digital currency, Calibra digital wallet

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Facebook is unveiling an ambitious plan to create a new digital currency and financial system to transform the way money moves around the world, and not just on its own apps.

It’s leading a consortium to create an open-source digital currency called Libra, set to launch in the first half of next year. The goal is for developers to create services for consumers to send money around the world easily and for free — with the same convenience as sending a photo or a message.

The Libra currency will not be run by Facebook, but rather by a nonprofit association supported by a range of companies and organizations. But Facebook does have a plan to profit from it with a new subsidiary, Calibra, which is building a digital wallet of the same name for storing and exchanging the currency.

The financial information from your digital wallet will not be used for ad targeting on Facebook’s platforms because the two divisions will be kept totally separate, the company said.

David Marcus

Michael Newberg | CNBC

“We’ve seen internet change the game for everything that could be digitized, except for money,” said David Marcus, the leader of Facebook’s Calibra division.

“The numbers really speak for themselves. There’s 1.7 billion people around the world that are unbanked, the same number are underserved by financial services,” said Marcus, who before taking over Facebook’s blockchain initiatives ran its Messenger division and was previously president of PayPal. “Now, anyone with a cheap smartphone has access to all the info they want in the world for free with a basic data plan. Why doesn’t money work the same way?”

The announcement comes after Facebook has faced a slew of privacy issues, raising real questions about whether people will trust the social platform with their financial information. Marcus says that’s why it’s so important that Facebook not be in control of the currency.

“It may sound super controversial but there’s no better way to demonstrate the evolution of our thinking, what we know we should control and what we should not and can not control,” Marcus said. “A network that enables billions of people to move money around the world should not be something we can or should control.”

What is Libra?

The new digital currency is set to launch in the first half of 2020. It will be run by a nonprofit, the Libra Association, based in Geneva, Switzerland. Its goal is to be broadly accessible, stable and secure.

Unlike bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, which can be hugely volatile and speculative, Libra will be backed by relatively stable government-backed money.

“If you buy $50 of Libra, your $50 makes its way to the Libra Reserve,” said Marcus. “It’s designed to be stable and confer values on Libra that makes it more like a traditional currency than any of the digital currencies are now. This is the way paper money was created.”

The fact that the Libra blockchain is open-source means that anyone can build a service or app that uses the currency. The wallets that are developed to use the service will be interoperable, so you’ll be able to send money from Facebook’s Calibra wallet to any other system that accepts Libra.

Consumers will not interact with the Libra Association, but will only interact with Libra through a digital wallet or an operator. For people who don’t have the ability to digitally purchase Libra with a credit card or digitally linked account, Marcus says he expects companies in emerging markets to create locations where people can exchange Libra for cash.

Who’s involved in this digital currency?

Facebook is joined by 27 other companies and organizations that are founding members. The goal is to have at least 100 companies and organizations on board for its launch next year. Each member of the association will manage one of the “nodes,” or locations where transactions involving Libra are validated.

Founding members include companies in the payments space: Visa, Stripe and PayPal, which will be able to help merchants accept Libra. Some tech companies are also on board, including eBay, Lyft, Uber, Spotify, and Latin American payments platform Mercado Pago, which could drive adoption of acceptance of the currency. Two European telecom companies are also involved, Iliad and Vodafone.

Venture capital investment companies involved have experience with digital payments: Andreessen Horowitz, Breakthrough Initiatives, Ribbit Capital, Thrive Capital, and Union Square Ventures. Nonprofit and academic organizations on board are focused on helping people who don’t have access to banking: Creative Destruction Lab, Kiva, Mercy Corps, and Women’s World Banking. And four blockchain companies are involved: Anchorage, Bison Trails, Coinbase and Xapo Holdings.

“The idea is that [Libra] has mass adoption — lots of trusted companies that want to join the journey, so there’s a chance of this becoming mainstream,” Marcus said.

This list of founding members invested a minimum of $10 million to fund the operating costs of the nonprofit association as well as to launch an incentive program to jumpstart the underlying Libra blockchain and to drive adoption of the currency.

Facebook’s Calibra digital wallet

Facebook’s Calibra is a digital wallet that will be accessible as a stand-alone app and integrated into Messenger and WhatsApp. Facebook says it’s designed to enable anyone to securely store money for free on their phone and to allow people to securely send and receive Libra around the world, with no fees for consumers, although Facebook is considering “very low” fees for merchants.

Down the line, Marcus anticipates Facebook will offer other financial services, such as loans, from which it could profit: “If the network is successful, it will be a big opportunity for us to provide lending to all these consumers,” he said.

Facebook’s larger goal is to get people to spend more time on its platforms. This launch will enable the 2.7 billion people who use its various apps every month to more easily make purchases from the 90 million businesses on its platform. The easier it is for these businesses to drive sales on Facebook, the more likely they are to buy ads.

Although Calibra is fully owned by Facebook, it’s operating as a subsidiary kept separate from Facebook’s advertising businesses, so it can be regulated appropriately.

One key use case for Calibra is remittances. Facebook says that every year $25 billion is lost by migrants on fees from the likes of Western Union. Marcus says the current process is antiquated: Immigrants send a photo of their receipt from Western Union to family members via WhatsApp so they can collect the money, minus a fee. Calibra would cut Western Union and other money-transfer services out of the equation.

A key for Calibra’s adoption is making it easy to understand exchange rate and transfer money in and out of the currency, says Kevin Weil, Calibra’s VP of Product who formerly oversaw Instagram Stories, Facebook’s successful attempt to battle Snapchat.

“The easier it is to go back and forth [from the local currency to Libra] the more confidence people will have,” he said. “If you’re banked you can imagine connecting your bank account, if you’re not banked then you can imagine a map that shows nearby money transfer experiences.”

Will this whole thing take off?

Libra is the first new cryptocurrency that has a real opportunity to bring digital currency to the mainstream, according to one of Libra’s founding partners, Anchorage, which acts as an institutional custodian for crypto assets.

It solves some of the underpinning issues that other cryptocurrencies have not been able to, to reach this promise, ” says Anchorage President and co-founder Diogo Monica.

“It’s based on a very scalable, highly efficient blockchain, that can do many thousands of transactions per second. And it’s backed by bank deposits and government securities like the U.S. dollar, so it will have low volatility,” Monica said. “The association has so many big players that already have relationships, which solves the chicken-and-egg problem of adoption.”

Monica says that Anchorage will operate one of the many nodes to handle Libra transactions and could sell its services to other members of the association for safekeeping of their Libra assets.

Marcus says if people don’t want to trust Facebook’s Calibra, there will be other apps to access the currency.

To boost its security, Calibra will have the same verification and anti-fraud processes that banks and credit cards use. To gain access users will have to have a valid government ID and use two-factor authentication, leveraging the likes of FaceID. The service will have built-in fraud production and dedicated live support. And if someone accesses a user’s account, Calibra promises to refund any lost assets.

Launching a whole new system comes with its challenges. “Every direction you look there’s stuff you have to figure out from scratch,” said Weil. “Not everyone is familiar with exchange rates, and even the folks that are, aren’t necessarily familiar with digital currency. I’ll take a lot of time to educate people.”

There’s also the question of regulatory approval. Weil says they’re talking to regulators and are in the process of getting money-transfer licenses, which they expect to have secured for a launch next year.

“People will misunderstand and think this is a Facebook thing, ” said Weil. “We incubated it, but it’s designed to be run in a decentralized way.”

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